leis an gclaoninsint (GLAY*-uhn-IN-shint);
practice with indirect speech
the following sentences aloud. Do not translate
them word for word, but instead form a mental
picture of the action and the agents.
sé go mbeidh sé ag cur sneachta
roimh i bhfad.
nár fhill sí ar scoil anuraidh.
Mícheál liom gan glaoch ar a dhochtúir.
go bhfuil an bus in aice an stáisiúin,
dá mbeifeá lasmuigh den oifig.
cheapamar go gcloisfeá an chéad
mé le Réamonn gan teacht anseo
Brian liom dul abhaile ach gan an doras tosaigh
a ligint oscailte.
Síle liom gur cheannaíodh sí
troscán sa siopa ilranna sin.
gan na saighdiúirí a fhilleadh.
mé air an leabhar a cheannach dom.
says that it will be snowing before long. We
heard that she didn't return to school last
year. Mícheál told me not to call
(telephone) his doctor. You would see that the
bus is next to the station, if you were outside
the office. We didn't think that you would hear
the next train.
will tell Réamonn not to come here tomorrow.
Brian would tell me to go home but not to leave
the front door open. Síle told me that
she used to buy furniture in that department
store. We prayed that the soldiers would not
return. I will ask him to buy the book for me.
Nótaí: "Lasmuigh (lahs-MWEE)
de" means "outside of"; "laistigh
(lahsh-TEE) de" is "inside of".
"Ilranna" means "many departments
or sections", from "roinn", a
share or part of. "Nár fhille na
saighdiúirí" were the words
actually spoken in connection with the next
to the last sentence.
modh ordaitheach (un moh OHRD-i-hahk*); the
or commands in Irish are given in several ways
beside the simple forms for speaking directly
to one or several persons.
an solas" means that you want one person,
the person being spoken to, to light the light.
"Lasaigí an solas" is an order
to two or more persons.
you want someone else to light the light, you
would say in English "Let him light the
light" or "Have him light the light".
In Irish, there is a special form for this in
sé an solas
examples: Oladh sé an tae; let him drink
the tea. Ritheadh sí abhaile; have her
run home. Ceannaíodh (KAN-ee-ohk*) sé
an tolg (TUHL-luhg); have him buy the sofa.
Imíodh (IM-ee-ohk*) sí leí;
have her depart.
"Have them ___ ", the forms are: lasaidís
an solas; have them light the light. Olaidís
an tae; rithidís abhaile; ceannaídís
an tolg; imídís leo.
ordering ourselves to do something, which is
the equivalent of the English "Let us ___
", the Irish forms are:
(LAHS-uh-mish) an solas; ólaimis an tae;
rithimis abhaile; ceannaímis (KAN-ee-mish)
an tolg; imímis linn.
is even a form for ordering one's self to do
something, although it is not common. It is
the same as the present tense, "Lasaim
an solas", which means approximately "Let
me light the light" or "I am going
to light the light". It is more common
in a few negative forms, such as "Ná
cloisim é sin"; Don't let me hear
that, I don't want to hear that".
there is an imperative for the free form, an
an solas; have someone light the light, let
the light be lit.
form is often a prohibition. For example, the
equivalent of "No smoking" or "smoking
prohibited" is "Ná caitear
these complete lists aloud and picture the effect
of each command:
orders to refrain from an action, which is the
negative command, add, "ná"
(naw*) before the forms above: Ná cuirim,
ná cuir, ná cuireadh sé,
ná cuireadh sí, ná cuirimis,
ná cuirigí, ná cuiridís,
ná cuirtear é.
the verb begins with a vowel, prefix an "h"
hól an deoch sin; ná hóladh
sí an t-uisce, don't let her drink the
water, make sure she doesn't drink the water.
of usage for an modh ordaitheach:
abhaile; let's go home. Fanimis anseo; let's
stay here. Ná seastar anseo; no standing
"tá", the forms are:
bí, bíodh sé, bíodh
sí, bímis, bígí,
the regular verbs, the imperative forms are
nearly all regular.
come, has: tagaim, tar, tagadh sé, tagadh
sí, tagaimis, tagaigí, tagaidís,
give, has: tugaim, tabhair, tugadh sé,
tugadh sí, tugaimis, tugaigí,
say, has: abraim, abair, abradh sé, abradh
sí, abraimis, abraigí, abraidís,
Irish, "to have" makes use of "tá"
with "ag". Emotions and illnesses
need "tá with "ar". The
imperative, as well as the subjunctive for wishing,
must have a form of "tá" in
these instances. Examples:
arán agat; have some bread. Bíodh
ceann eile agat; have another one. Bíodh
pláta ag Séamas; let Séamas
have a plate.
áthas ort; be happy. Ná bíodh
eagla ort; don't be afraid. Ná bíodh
éad ort; don't be jealous.
raibh áthas ort; may you be happy. Go
raibh biseach air; may he recover. Go raibh
saol fada agat; may you have a long life. Ná
raibh dóiteán dea leithead sin
agat; I hope you don't have a fire like that.