aitheantais (A-huhn-tish); recognition drill
níos moiche maidin amárach, dá
mbeadh orm bheith ag obair. (deye-ROH-in; MWI-he).
d'airgead, mura gcuirfeá in áit
shábháilte é. (huh-VWAW*-il-te).
sé go bhfreagróidh sé an
cheist tar éis an chruinniú.
an leanbh ina luí roimh a sé a
n-ullmhaítear an bia amuigh sa chistin?
é sin an cárta a chaill mé
I would get up earlier tomorrow morning if I
had to be at work. Your money would be stolen
if you didn't put it in a safe place. He says
that he will answer the question after the meeting.
The child will be in bed before six o'clock.
Isn't the food prepared out in the kitchen?
That's the card I lost last year.
English, there is a readily understood difference
between "I closed the window" and
"I used to close the window". The
former sentence indicates a single specific
action. The latter sentence tells us that there
was a series of closings over a time span -
the closings were repeated or "habitual".
English, some other verb must precede "close"
to tell the listener that the action was repeated
or habitual. "Used to" or "wont
to" are two of these auxiliary verbs.
Irish, on the other hand, each verb has its
own forms to express the "past habitual"
or gnáthchaite (gnaw*-K*AH-tye). These
forms resemble an modh coinníollach,
so care is necessary in pronouncing them and
understanding them in speech.
this series over carefully, picturing the action
and who is doing it in each sentence:
(YEEL-in), I used to sell
(YEEL-taw*), you used to sell
sé (YEEL-UHK* shay), he used to sell
sí, she used to sell
(YEEL-i-mish), we used to sell
sibh (shiv), you-all used to sell
(YEEL-i-deesh), they used to sell
(YEEL-tee), it used to be sold, people used
to sell it
negative forms for this begin with:
dhíolainn, I didn't used to sell
questions, the forms begin with:
ndíolainn? (un neel-in), did I used to
sell? and for the negative question: nach ndíolainn?
(nahk* neel-in), didn't I used to sell?
familiarize yourself with this tense, say aloud
all 32 forms for each of these verbs: déan,
do; and las, light. Note that déan, although
irregular in many tenses, is regular in the
first and eighth forms for each are: dhéanainn
(YAY*N-in), dhéantaí (YAY*N-tee);
lasainn (LAHS-in), lastaí (LAHS-tee).
déan, and las all end in a broad consonant.
If a verb ends in a slender consonant, the spelling
and pronunciation of the final syllable can
change slightly. An example:
(K*IR-in), I used to put, chuirteá, chuireadh
sé, chuireadh sí, chuirimis, chuireadh
sibh, chuiridís, chuirtí.
the verb begins with a vowel or an "f",
then "d'" preceded the declarative
(DOH-lin), d'óltá ; ending with
d'óltaí, people used to drink.
(DAY*SH-tin), d'éisteá ; ending
with d'éistí, people used to listen.
(DAHN-in), d'fhantá ; ending with d'fhantaí,
people used to wait.
the verb begins with a vowel, the negative question
in the past habitual begins with "nach
n_ ", as in :
n-ólainn? (nahk* NOH-lin), didn't I used
to drink? , and ending with nach n-óltaí?
n-éistinn?, nach n-éisteá?
, and ending with nach n-éistí,
didn't people used to listen.
following Irish sentences have either the past
habitual or the conditional form of the verb.
Picture in your mind whether the action actually
used to occur in the past or is only an imagined
sé trasna an chlóis. Chloisfinn
é. Mholaimis na leanaí (LAN-ee).
Dhoirtidís an bainne amach. Chrochadh
sí a cóta suas. Chnagfainn (K*NAHK-hin)
ar an doras. Dhúntaí an geata
ar a deich a chlog. D'ólfá é.
Ní cheapaimis é sin. Mhúintí
anseo é sin. Nach mbrisfí é?
He used to jump across the yard. I would hear
him. We used to praise the children. They used
to pour out the milk. She used to hang up her
coat. I would knock on the door. The gate used
to be closed at ten o'clock. You would drink
it. We didn't used to think that. That used
to be taught here. Wouldn't it be broken?
are more adjectives:
(LEK-trahk*), electric. Solas leictreach; electric
(BRESH-e), extra. Cóip bhreise, an extra
copy; ceann breise, an extra one.
(tash), damp. Seomra tais, a damp room; urláir
thaise, damp floors.
(AW*-vwuhr-ahk*), lucky. Daoine ámharacha,
(mee-AW*-vwuhr-ahk*), unlucky. Capall mí-ámharach,
an unlucky horse.
(koong), narrow. Bóithre cúnga,