individual questions below are written in the
form of the pronunciation guide. Read them aloud,
or have someone read them to you. As you hear
them, try to make up simple answers to them. If
you are not sure of the meanings, look at the
Key at lesson end. Specimen answers are given
taw* too in-YOO?
vwil duh K*OH-tuh?
rev shaw*n suh TAHK*?
hay* SHIN er un MOH-uhr?
have learned the basic elements of the first two
declensions, or groups of nouns. We will continue
with practice and drilling on these to make you
more familiar with the various forms and to allow
you to recognize them in reading and listening.
will probably take a little time before you begin
to use the genitive form in your own speech and
writing, but you will do so more quickly if you
make a conscious effort to do this.
first by using the compound prepositions, such
as "os comhair" (ohs KOH-ir), in front
of, whenever you can. These prepositions take
the genitive, and they have the advantage of word
order similar to that in English: "in front
of the school" is "os comhair na scoile"
(nuh SKUHL-e). "During the day" is "le
linn an lae" (le lin un LAY*).
next step for you will be use of the genitive
with the verbal noun. For example, "playing
tennis" is " ag imirt leadóige"
(eg IM-irt la-DOH-i-ge).
after more practice, you will begin to introduce
expressions like "múinteoirí
na scoile seo" (moo-in-TYOHR-ee nuh SKUHL-e
shuh), teachers of this school, easily into your
will look at the third declension of nouns in
this lesson. This declension is a group of nouns,
masculine and feminine, all of which end in "-a"
in the genitive singular. The nominative singular
ends in a consonant.
example, "rás" (raws) means "race".
"The day of the race" is "lá
an rása" (law* un RAW*S-uh). "Móin"
(MOH-in) means "peat" or "turf".
"The Turf Board" is "Bord na Móna"
(bohrd nuh MOHN-uh).
that the "i" disappears in the genitive
of "móin". This is because the
final "a" makes the "n" broad,
and an "i" cannot be next to a broad
third declension contains many nouns that mean
occupations or trades. Example:
(dohk*-TOO-ir), doctor; hata an dochtúra
(HAHT un dohk*-TOO-ruh), the doctor's hat.
(moo-in-TYOHR), teacher; in aice an mhúinteora
(in AK-uh vwoo-in-TYOHR-uh), next to the teacher.
third-declension nouns are feminine. Móin
(MOH-in), an mhóin (un VWOH-in) is an example.
"The turf's color" is "dath na
móna (dah nuh MOH-nuh).
of third declension nouns
of the occupational or job nouns are masculine,
and all add "__ í" to form the
plural. Bádóir (baw*-DOH-ir), boatman,
becomes bádóirí (baw*-doh-ir-ee).
nouns in this declension form plurals variously,
often by the addition of "-aí"
or "-anna," or "-acha."
(kyahk*t), an ceacht, an cheachta, na ceachtanna,
lesson, the lesson, of the lesson, the lessons.
(rud), an rud, an ruda, na rudaí (RUD-ee),
thing, the thing, of the thing, the things.
(lohk*), an loch, an locha, na lochanna, lake,
the lake, of the lake, the lakes.
(oum), an t-am (un TOUM), an ama (un AH-muh),
na hamanna (nuh HAH-muh-nuh), time, etc.
an múinteoir, an mhúinteora (un
vwoo-in-TYOH-ruh), na múinteoirí,
teacher, the teacher, of the teacher, the teachers.
(PAY*N-tay*r), an péintéir, an phéintéara
(un FAY*N-tay*r-uh), na péintéirí,
an dochtúir, an dochtúra, na dochtúirí,
(MOH-in), an mhóin (un VWOH-in), na móna
(nuh MOH-nuh), na móinte (nuh MOH-in-te),
turf (or peat), the turf, of the turf, the turfs.
(BLEE-in), an bhliain (un VLEE-in), na bliana
(nuh BLEE-uh-nuh), na blianta (nuh BLEE-uhn-tuh),
year, the year, of the year, the years.
(FYOH-il), an fheoil (un OH-il), na feola (nuh
FYOH-luh), na feolta, meat, the meat, of the meat,
(kaw*shk), an Cháisc (un K*AW*SHK), na
Cásca (nuh KAW*S-kuh), Easter, the Easter,
(DAW*il), an dáil, na dála (nuh
DAW*-luh), na dálaí (nuh DAW*-lee),
assembly, the assembly, etc.
(POH-blahk*t), an phoblacht, na poblachta, na
poblachtaí, republic, etc.
all third declension nouns have strong plural
forms, and their genitive or possessive plural
form is the same as the nominative plural. Examples:
teachers' contract" is "conradh na múinteoirí"
lakes' water" is "uisce na lochanna.
common expressions or terms with third-declension
codlata (oum KUHL-uh-tuh), bedtime, from: an codladh
(KUHL-uh), an chodlata (un K*UHL-uh-tuh), sleep.
an átha (bay*l un AW*), Ballina, town in
Maigh Eo; from béal, mouth, and áth,
an t-áth, na háthanna, ford; mouth
of the ford.
droma, backache, from droim (drim), an droim,
an droma (DROHM-uh), back.
Amach na Cásca (EYE-ree uh-MAHK* nuh KAW*S-kuh),
The Easter Rising.